AV NIRVANA Concordance


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A


Absorption is the transfer of energy from sound to another form, typically heat, usually by presenting the sound with a substance that captures the energy rather than reflecting or altering the direction.


Audio Video Bridging (AVB)
refers to a set of technical standards for moving audio and video over networks. The standards are developed by the Time-Sensitive Networking Task Group under IEEE 802.1 standards.

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B


Balanced signals are transmitted in equal out of phase pairs with a separate ground reference (contrast to Unbalanced signals which have one signal line referenced to ground). Balanced signal transmission typically provides lower noise, as the two signal lines are out of phase, so any common noise introduced is cancelled out. This is known as common mode rejection. The ground (shield) can more effectively pass noise to earth ground without being introduced into the signal carrying lines.

Bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower frequencies at which a signal is 3dB down from a reference level.

Biamping is the use of multiple amplifiers to drive different parts of a speaker system with an electronic crossover (contrast to Bi-wiring where one amplifier is connected to the speaker via 2 pairs of wires, connected to the passive crossovers in the loudspeaker).

Bridging (amplifier) is the use of multiple amplifier channels out of phase to drive a single load. The result is a doubling of the output voltage, but the amplifier remains current limited to the maximum power supply output current in 2 channel mode. The bridged amplifier can effectively drive an impedance double the impedance in 2 channel mode. Not to be confused with Audio Video Bridging (AVB) which is a method of providing audio and video across networks.

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C


Capacitance is the resistance to change in voltage in an electric circuit. Circuit components providing capacitance are called capacitors (symbol C) which consist of 2 conductors with surfaces parallel to each other separated by an insulator called a Dielectric .

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D


Decibel (symbol dB) is a ratio between two levels in a logarithmic scale to reduce the size of the numbers. Precisely, the level in db is 20 log x/y where x and y are the actual levels, e.g. a 90db value is a ratio of 32,000 to 1. Since a db measure is ratio, some reference must be defined to make the relative measure useful. Some recognized reference levels are 0dBu (.775Vrms), 0 dBV (1.0 Vrms), and 0 dBm (1.0 mW).

Dielectric is an insulator between two conductors.

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E


Early Reflections are the first waves to arrive at a listening position after the direct sound from the source but before reverberation occurs.

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F


FLAC (Free Lossless Audio Codec) is a codec for lossless compression of digital files. It can typically reduce the size of a file by 50% - 60% and can contain metadata.

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G


Ground Loops occur when multiple impedances creating voltage drops between components in a system, allowing current to flow on what should be ground paths.

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H


HDR refers to High Dynamic Range and is implemented currently in two commercially available systems, HDR10 and Dolby Vision. Both attempt to reproduce video closer to lifelike contrast ratios and with greater color bit depth. Dolby Vision operates with 12 bit color and its current standard for maximum output is 1000 nits. HDR10 uses 10 bit color depth and 400 nits.

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I


Intermodulation Distortion is a nonlinear distortion component created by frequencies interacting to produce a new frequency which is not a harmonic of either interacting frequency.

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J


J

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K


K

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L


L

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M


MVPDs (Multichannel Video Programming Distributors) are cable companies and satellite providers who deliver numerous channels of programming to consumers.

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N


N

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O


OTT (Over The Top) content is programming delivered over the internet that is not controlled by MVPD (Multichannel Video Programming Distributors), Television Broadcast Channels, or OVDs (Online Video Distributors).

OVD (Online Video Distributors) is a term defined by the FCC for services such as Netflix or Hulu that distribute video programming online.

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P


Pink Noise has power distributed in bands by 3dB per octave. For audio purposes the intent is to more closely match the intensity to the way humans hear sound.

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Q


Q Factor in audio is the center frequency divided by the half-power bandwidth and is ofter used in reference to filters. Therefore a higher Q results in a narrower bandwdidth.

Q (Speakers) Refers to the directivity of the speaker. Analougous to Q factor in bandwidth, a higher Q results in a narrower dispersion. Q = 1 is equal energy in all directions, while Q = 2 would result in half power at 180 degrees.

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R


Resolution is a widely used term that can refer to objective measures or to subjective perception of the level of detail that a system can reproduce or transmit. Objectively it may refer to the bit depth in digital audio or video signals or the smallest measure that can be produced by a display. Subjectively it is often used to describe greater clarity in reproduced images or sound.

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S


S

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T


Thiele-Small parameters describe the electromechanical properties of a low frequency loudspeaker driver. Abbreviated T/S, they are named for two Austrailians, A. Neville Thiele and Richard H. Small
  B: Gap Magnetic flux density [T]
  Bl: Electro-magnetic force factor [T·m]
  C: Sound Propagation velocity [~342 m/s]
  Cas: Acoustic equivalent of Cms
  Cmes: Capacitive equivalent of Mms [F]
  Cms: Mechanical compliance [m/N]
  D: Effective driver diameter [m]
  F3: -3 dB cutoff frequency [Hz]
  Fb: Enclosure resonance [Hz]
  Fc: System resonance [Hz]
  Fs: Free air resonant frequency of driver [Hz]
  l: Length of wire in magnetic field [m]
  Lces: Inductive equivalent of Cms [H]
  Le: Voice coil Inductance [H]
  Mas: Acoustic equivalent of Mms
  Mms: Effective mechanical mass [mg]
  n0 (eta sub zero): Efficiency of the system [%]
  p (rho): Density of air [~1.18 kg/m^3]
  Pa: Driver music power handling [w]
  Pe: Driver thermal power handling [w]
  Qa: Q of system at Fb, due to absorption losses
  Qec: Q of system at resonance (Fc), due to electrical losses
  Qes: Q of driver at resonance (Fs), due to electrical losses
  Ql: Q of system at Fb, due to leakage
  Qmc: Q of system at resonance (Fc), due to mechanical losses
  Qms: Q of driver at resonance (Fs), due to mechanical losses
  Qp: Q of system at Fb, due to port losses
  Qtc: Q of system at resonance (Fc), due to all losses
  Qts: Q of driver at resonance (Fs), due to all losses
  Ras: Acoustic Rms
  Re: Voice coil DC resistance [ohms]
  Res: Electrical Rms [ohms]
  Rg: Source resistance (amplifier, wiring, crossover) [ohms]
  Rms: Driver mechanical losses [kg/s]
  Sd: Effective radiating area of driver [m^2]
  Vas: 'Equivalent volume of compliance' [L], the free air 'stiffness' of the suspension.
  Vd: Driver maximum linear volume of displacement (Vd = Sd · Xmax) [m^3]
  Xmax: Driver maximum peak linear excursion [mm]



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W

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X

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Y

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AV NIRVANA Concordance
Published:
Mar 25, 2017
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